D = DNA Y = Y chromosome S = a unique DNA segment.
The markers in red have shown a faster mutation rate then the average, and therefore these markers are very helpful at splitting lineages into sub sets, or branches, within your family tree.
DYS-385a * DYS385a/b are unique. They are duplicated on the Y chromosome, and each copy can
DYS-385b mutate independently.
DYS-389I is part of the larger DYS389II. You can think of it as DYS389I is the first part, and
DYS-389II includes that first part and more.
DYS-389II For matches at DYS-389II you're looking for the differences between DYS389I and
DYS-389II being equal for both persons.
DYS-459a * DYS459a/b are unique. They are duplicated on the Y chromosome, and each copy can
DYS-459b mutate independently.
DYS-464a * For the DYS464 system each are unique and each copy can mutate independently, some DYS-464b people have even more than four copies.
Haplogroups defined by the 12 UEP markers according to a nomenclature modified from Rosser et al. (2000)
and Weale et al. (2001) The correspondence between this nomenclature and that proposed by the Y Chromosome Consortium (2002) is as follows:
hg1 = P*(xR1a)
hg2 = BR*(xDE,JR)
hg3 = R1a1
hg4 = DE*(xE)
hg7 = A3b2
hg8 = E3a
hg9 = J
hg16 = N3
hg20 = O2b
hg21 = E*(xE3a)
hg26 = K*(xL,N3,O2b,P)
hg28 = L, hg29 = R1a*
hg37 = Y*(xBR,A3b2).